Tag Archives: Lake Michigan

Visual History of the 46 US Life Saving Stations Serving Michigan

By the mid-1800s, during the beginning of Michigan’s lumbering era and intense growth and settlement of the Upper Great Lakes, the shipping industry faced disaster. Over 4,500 vessels were foundered, 1,300 people died, and tens of millions in monetary damages occurred on the Great Lakes. These astounding losses prompted Congress to authorize legislation for constructing the US Life Saving Stations and putting the United States Life Saving Service (USLSS) into operation on the Great Lakes in 1854.

The service replaced the previously all-volunteer life-saving stations and was converted to house-paid crews.

The Life-Saving Service was merged into the United States Coast Guard in 1915.

Disasters on the Great Lakes Prompt Creation of the Life-Saving Service

Thomas Nast 1877 political cartoon: Death on the economy. “I suppose I must spend a little on life-saving service, life-boat stations, life-boats, surf-boats, etc.; but it is too bad to be obliged to waste so much money”.

The United States Life-Saving Service was a government institution in the United States that arose out of private and municipal humanitarian initiatives to rescue the lives of shipwrecked seamen and passengers. It was founded in 1848.

Before 1900, there were virtually few recreational boats, and most aid instances came from commercial ships. Almost all lifeboat stations were in or near port cities. Along with piers and other waterfront buildings, deep water allowed marine railroads on inclined ramps to deploy large lifeboats directly into the water. In general, lifeboat stations located on the Great Lakes tended to be in remote and near areas with a history of shipping incidents. The Great Lakes’ active season lasted from April through December.

President Woodrow Wilson signed the “Act to Create the Coast Guard” on January 28, 1915, combining the Life-Saving Service and the Revenue Cutter Service to become the United States Coast Guard. By the time the act was enacted, there were over 270 sites spanning the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coastlines and the Great Lakes.

US Life Saving Stations on Lake Huron

Station Lake View Beach, Michigan 1898

Lakeview Beach Station, circa 1929. Courtesy of Roger Will, son of surfman Melvin Will, who was assigned to the station in the late 1920s. – USCG

Located five miles north of Fort Gratiot light. Built in 1898 and decommissioned (abandoned) 1946

Station Sand Beach/ Harbor Beach, 1881

US Life Saving Station Harbor Beach

Constructed in 1881 the station was moved in 1898. The station was also known as Sand Beach Harbor or Harbor Beach. Turned over the GSA in 1958.

Station Pointe aux Barques Michigan, 1876

US Life Saving Station Pointe Aux Barques – Courtesy Library of Congress

Designated Point Aux Barques USLSS Station #2, Tenth District Coast Guard Station # 248

J. H. Crouch took over as keeper in 1876 and departed in 1877. Charles E. McDonald was hired as keeper on March 12, 1887, and departed in 1880. In 1880, the keeper was Jerome G. Kiah. On April 23, 1880, he was the only survivor of his whole station crew after they launched their lifeboat to save a ship in danger during a storm. The station was turned over to the GSA in 1956.

Station Grindstone City Michigan, 1881

Located about 2 miles northeast of Port Austin, and about 2 miles southeast of Port Austin Reef Light; Lake Huron. Henry Gill, Jr., was appointed 28 September 1881 and was still serving in 1915. The station was decommissioned in 1939.

Station Ottawa Point/East Tawas Michigan, 1876

US Life Saving Station Ottawa Point

Station Ottawa Point [East Tawas] is designated as USLSS Station #4, Tenth District Coast Guard Station #250. Constructed in 1876 this station is still in operation.

Station Sturgeon Point, 1876

US Life Saving Station Sturgeon Point

Located near the lighthouse, this is one of the US lifesaving stations operating from 1876 until 1960.

Station Thunder Bay Island, 1876

Thunder Bay Lighthouse 1913 – Library of Congress

Alpena/ Middle Island, 1881

US Life Saving Station Alpena/ Middle Island

Located on the north end of Middle Island, Lake Huron. The station was turned over to the GSA in 1958.

Hammond’s Bay (formerly Forty-Mile Point), 1876

The Hammond Lifeboat Station in Hammond, Michigan, was located in Presque Isle County on Lake Huron. The Lifeboat House was constructed in 1880. In the spring of 1947, the station was deactivated. The US Fish and Wildlife Service later seized the reserve and its structures under permission given by the Commandant of the Coast Guard on March 21, 1950. In 1971, it was transferred to the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Sport, Fisheries, and Wildlife.

Station Bois Blanc, Michigan, 1891

Coast Guard Station Bois Blanc is located at Lake Huron in Mackinac County, Michigan. The buildings of the station were erected in 1890 and rebuilt in 1920.

US Life Saving Stations On Lake Superior

Station Vermillion Point, Michigan 1876

Located ten miles west of White Fish Point in Lake Superior. This station was established in 1876 and merged with the Crisp Point station in 1940.

Station Two Heart River, Michigan 1876

Located near the mouth of the Two Heart River, this Lake Superior station was established in 1876, decommissioned in 1945

Station Crisps Point, Michigan, 1876

Crisp Point Lighthouse, Lake Superior, Luce County, Michigan – Courtesy US Coast Guard

Built in 1875, the Crisp Point Station occupied several sites at various times. The erosion of the land caused the station to be moved frequently. Located 18 miles west of Whitefish Point, Lake Superior. The station was taken over by the Department of the Interior in 1971.

Station Muskellunge Lake, Michigan 1876

Built in 1876 and located across of Muskallonge Lake, 16-1/2 miles east of Grand Marais Harbor of Refuge Outer Light, and 18 1/4 miles west southwest of Crisp Point Light, Lake Superior. Later named Deer Park it operated until 1955.

Station Marquette, Michigan 1891

Marquette Harbor Lighthouse – Courtesy US Coast Guard

Located east of the city limits, near the inner end of the breakwater, 1/16 mile west of Marquette Light. The station was built in 1890 and still in operation.

Station Ship Canal, Michigan, 1884

 Portage Lake Ship Canal Lighthouse, Keweenaw Waterway, Lake Superior, Houghton, Michigan – USCG

Located on Portage Lake near Hancock, Michigan. This station comprises three buildings: the 1902 station house and boathouse, the 1935 station and three-bay boathouse with a marine railway system, and another tiny utility/storage structure that looks to be from the Life-Saving Service era. These structures sit on 22 acres of land. The station is still in operation.

Station Mackinac Island, 1915

Mackinac Island Lifesaving Station House

Station Grand Marais, Michigan

Grand Marais Coast Guard and Lifesaving Station 1927 – Courtesy Grand Marais Chamber of Commerce

Built in 1899 and located on the west side entrance to Grand Marais Harbor, 1/3 mile south of Grand Marais Harbor of Refuge Outer Light. The station is still in operation.

Station Eagle Harbor, Michigan

Eagle Harbor Rear Range Light, Eagle Harbor, Keweenaw County, Michigan – Photo by USCG

Built in 1912 the station was located on the east point of the harbor, about 1/2 mile east of Eagle Harbor Light. After World War II, the station was decommissioned and turned over to the General Services Administration.

The station was noted for the 1913 rescue efforts of the steamer Waldoon Gull Rock off Keweenaw Point in Lake Superior.

US Life Saving Stations On Lake Michigan

Station Beaver Island, Michigan 1876

Beaver Island Light and Station – Courtesy US Coast Guard
Beaver Island Light – Photo by USCG

USLSS Station #1, Eleventh District, Coast Guard Station #257, Near the northeast end of Beaver Island, abreast of Beaver Harbor, at Beaver Island Harbor Light. Built in 1875 and decommissioned in 1922.

Station Charlevoix, Michigan

The station was located on the south side of Pine River entrance to Charlevoix Harbor, 1/8 mile east of Charlevoix South Pierhead Light. Constructed in 1890

Station North Manitou Island Michigan, 1876

US Life Saving Station North Manitou Island

Station Point Betsey Michigan, 1876

Built in 1875, this station was also referred to as the Point au Bec Scies Station, and note that it was located “Near the light-house at Point Betsie, Mich., just south of Point Betsie Light; Lake Michigan.

Station Frankfort Michigan, 1887

Frankfort Life Saving Station, Michigan – USCG

The original Coast Guard Station Frankfort was established on May 4, 1882. The sites were at the south side of the harbor entrance at Frankfort.

Station Manistee Michigan, 1879

Manistee North Pierhead Light, Manistee, Michigan – Photo USCG

Station Grand Pointe au Sable Michigan, 1876

 Au Sable Light, Michigan – Photo USCG

The June 20, 1874 legislation permitted the establishment of a comprehensive life-saving station at “Grand Pointe au Sable.” On May 15, 1877, this station was erected “one mile south of light” and went into service. The station had several names, including Big Sable Point (1923) and Grand Point Sable (1925). In 1937, the station was reported defunct. Except for the fact that it was turned over to the GSA in 1954, it does not appear in documents after World War II.

Station Ludington Michigan 1879

US Life Saving Station Ludington

Lifeboat stations were authorized at Manistee and Ludington in 1878, followed by Frankfort in 1882; the Coast Guard has been looking for seafarers in danger across the region ever since. Post Ludington has evolved from a tiny seasonal detachment to a full-time, year-round station. Station Ludington offers rescue for an entire operational area of roughly 35 nautical miles of coastline containing 1,050 square miles and spanning two counties, in addition to its principal area of responsibility from Big Sable Point to Stoney Lake.

In April 2004, a new station building was constructed and commissioned; the 4,200 square-foot structure considerably improved the unit’s efficiency, operating capabilities, and the crew’s comfort. The station handles roughly 100 Search and Rescue cases annually and over 150 boardings with a crew complement of sixteen active duty, four reservists, and more than twenty Auxiliary personnel.

Station Pentwater Michigan, 1887

US Life Saving Station Pentwater

Constructed in 1886 and located north side entrance of Pentwater Harbor, 1/4 mile east of Pentwater Pierhead Light; Lake Michigan. Turned over to the General Services Administration in 1965

Station White River Michigan, 1886

US Life Saving Station White River

Somewhat confusing due to its location on White Lake near Montague, the White River station was established in 1886 and operated until it was abandoned in 1947

Station Muskegon Michigan, 1879

US Life Saving Station Muskegon
 Muskegon Life Saving Station, Muskegon, MI Postcard, circa 1900 – USCG

Muskegon Station’s boathouse in Muskegon County, Michigan, was transferred on July 26, 1878. On March 24, 1883, a station site on the north side of Muskegon Harbor was obtained by deed from the same grantor, C.D. Nelson of Kalamazoo, Michigan. The station buildings were at grave risk of being swept away in 1903, therefore it was determined that a new location on the harbor’s south bank would be preferable. The trustees of the Pere Marquette Railroad Co. transferred to land by deed dated July 18, 1904.

Station Grand Haven Michigan, 1876

US Life Saving Station Grand Haven Event
US Life Saving Station Grand Haven

USLSS Station #9, Eleventh District Coast Guard Station #270 Built in 1875 and is still in operation.

Station Holland Harbor Michigan 1886

Holland Harbor Pierhead Light, Holland, Ottawa County, Michigan, original wooden structure Holland (Black Lake) Range Ninth Naval District (Chicago)

Station Holland Michigan, 1886

Holland Life Saving Station, located on the south side of the entrance to Lake Macatawa, 1/8 mile east of South Pier Rear Range Light, Station Holland was built in 1885 and is still operational today. Lake Macatawa, MI Postcard circa 1900

The Holland Lifeboat Station was in the Township of Park in Ottawa County, Michigan. In January 1964, some land was turned over to the GSA. More property was ceded to the US Army Corps of Engineers later that year. Since 1870, a lighthouse had been in service. The land for the lifeboat station was purchased between 1875 and 1884.

Station South Haven Michigan, 1887

In 1872, the site for Coast Guard Station South Haven was purchased. That same year, the station’s residence was built. In 1887, a US Life Saving Station was established. South Haven, Van Buren County, Michigan, is the property’s location. In 1905, the station was relocated to the south side of the port entrance. Until March 1972, the house was inhabited. The station was decommissioned in 1973 and transformed into an Auxiliary enhanced outfit with no regular staff attached.

Station St. Joseph Michigan, 1876

Life-Saving Station St. Joeseph
Station St. Joseph Michigan – USCG

Station Saint Joseph, Michigan designated USLSS Station #10, Eleventh District Coast Guard Station #273. Located north side entrance to St. Joseph River, 7/16 miles east southeast of Pierhead Rear Light; Lake Michigan

Station Sleeping Bear Point Michigan, 1901

Station Sleeping Bear Point

Built in 1901 USLSS Station #3, Eleventh District Coast Guard Station #261 is located on Sleeping Bear Bay, near Glenn Haven, 7 miles south southeast of South Manitou Light; Lake Michigan

US Life Saving Stations On Lake St Clair & Detroit River

Station Belle Isle, Detroit Michigan

The station was built in 1881 and, formerly known as St. Clair Lifeboat Station, was designed by the Ninth Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Section, Cleveland, Ohio. It is primarily a search and rescue operation and is still active today.

Station St. Clair Flats

This station is listed in Dennis Noble’s book “A Legacy – The United States Life Saving Service” but not by the US Coast Guard. Research continues.

Station St Clair Shores

This station is listed in Dennis Noble’s book “A Legacy – The United States Life Saving Service”; however, this is not listed by the US Coast Guard. Research continues.


United States Coast Guard – U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Henry Ford’s Village Industries Experiment

When Michigan Was Still A Wilderness – 1841 Michigan Map

Early Days at Grindstone City

300 Lives Taken With The Horrific Sinking of the Lady Elgin on Lake Michigan

There are tens of thousands of shipwrecks at the bottom of the Great Lakes. Some are famous, such as the sinking of Edmond Fitzgerald in 1975. In 1913 an extreme storm dubbed the White Hurricane sank eight ships and took 187 lives over six hours on November 9, 1913. However, these incidents pale in comparison to one tragic incident of the sinking of the Lady Elgin in the Fall of 1860. 

What Was the Steamship Lady Elgin?

The Lady Elgin was a magnificent sight on Lake Michigan, but the sidewheeler’s short-lived life. It launched in May 1851, built in Buffalo, New York. The 252-foot wooden steamship was named after the wife of Canada’s Governor General of Canada from 1847 to 1854, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin. In the mid to late 1800s, steamships were the primary way to travel between Great Lakes cities as railways and roads were yet to be widely in place.

The wooden-hulled sidewheel steamship ran passengers and freight from Chicago to Buffalo and Collingwood, Ontario. During her nine years in service, the ship suffered many incidents; she was sunk once in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, caught fire, struck a reef at Copper Harbor, Michigan, and had several mechanical failures. 

What Happened During the Final Voyage of the Lady Elgin?

A woodcut engraving of the collision from Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper

Lady Elgin left Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for Chicago on September 6, 1860, carrying Milwaukee’s Union Guard members to hear Stephen A. Douglas, Abraham Lincoln’s opponent, give a campaign address, albeit there is no solid historical proof that Douglas spoke. Onboard the Lady Elgin, 300 men and women spent the day of September 7 listening to political lectures, followed by an evening of entertainment by a German brass band.

That night, in gale-force winds, she was rammed by the schooner Augusta of Oswego. It had been heading out from Milwaukee when it had met up with the storm and turned back. Its captain also decided that it would be safer to try riding out the storm until it abated rather than make for port in such heavy weather.

Lady Elgin and Augusta collided near Winnetka with such force that they almost split each other openly. Within 20 minutes, Lady Elgin was breaking apart and sinking.

350-400 passengers and crew were now drifting in stormy waters, holding on to anything they could as waves crashed over them repeatedly. Many were pulled under by breakers nearshore, while others held on desperately to lose their grip soon after.

The Lady Elgin sank in Lake Michigan ten miles off the fledgling town of Port Clinton, Illinois, whose geography is now divided between Highland Park and Highwood, Illinois,

What Happened After the Sinking of the Lady Elgin?

The Lady Elgin, sinking, half an hour after she had been run into, off Winnetka, Illinois – New York Illustrated News

The most significant impact of the sinking of the Lady Elgin was that it led to new laws regarding lighting on passenger ships in the Great Lakes.

It took three years after the wreck of the Lady Elgin for a new law to be passed. The Lady Elgin disaster remains the most significant loss of life on open water in the Great Lakes history. Some believe it might have been prevented if better communication and night navigation equipment had been better. In 1864, a new ruling required sailing vessels to carry running lights.

Since there were still nearly 1,900 ships under sail by 1870, these regulations were long overdue.

Is There a Memorial for the Lady Elgin?

There are several memorials throughout Wisconsin to commemorate the devastating loss of life. A Wisconsin Historical Marker in the historic third ward in Milwaukee commemorates the tragedy. Calvary Cemetery in Milwaukee has a monument dedicated to the Lady Elgin disaster and the many lost in the tragedy. A memorial song called “Lost on the Lady Elgin” was sung at family gatherings.

With assistance from private donors and public funds (through a Department of Tourism grant), The Milwaukee Irish Heritage and Cultural Center have recently spearheaded a $200,000 project for a mammoth, two-story bronze memorial statue for this disaster that could become one of Wisconsin’s top tourist attractions. However, there is little information on the status of this effort.

Where is the Wreak of the Lady Elgin?

If you want to visit the wreck of Lady Elgin, you can. She lies in Lake Michigan, near Highwood, Illinois. The wreck was discovered in 1989 by Harry Zych and later explored by the Underwater Archaeological Society of Chicago.

Impact of 12 Major Great Lakes Water Diversions On Water Levels

When it comes to the Great Lakes region’s value to the United States and Canadian economies, its impact cannot be understated. Great Lakes water diversions can negatively impact the entire region. Without a  viable and healthy Great Lakes, the economies of the two countries would suffer.

Are the Great Lakes Water Levels Declining?

New data from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Detroit District see all of the lakes have lower levels, with Lake Michigan and Lake Huron showing a drop of 14 inches from the same time last year. Lake Superior is down about six inches. Lake Ontario experienced the largest drop of 28 inches, while Lake Erie fell 17 inches.

 However, the lakes are still far above their long-term mean. Lakes Huron-Michigan remains 22 inches above its average level, while Lake Superior is 8 inches above average. Its uncertain what the effects of climate change will have on high water levels. 

Why Is The Water Level In The Great Lakes Rising?

 During an average year, the water levels begin to rise in the spring when seasonal rainfalls in the region and snowmelt add to the level of rivers, drains, and tributaries that release into the lakes. Nevertheless, we have been experiencing wetter-than-normal average precipitation conditions for the past three years. A significant seasonal rise in weather events and participation has contributed to spiking water levels across the Great Lakes Basin.

 Are the Great Lakes Water Levels Controlled?

 The Great Lakes water levels are currently impacted by inflow and outflow from several key areas. These include Michigan’s Soo Locks, which regulate the outflow from Lake Superior to Lakes Michigan-Huron. In addition, the dredging depth of the St. Clair River north of Detroit also impacts outflow from Lake Huron.

Thirteen significant diversions transfer water in and out of the Great Lakes basin. These diversions support ship goods, generate energy, and provide drinking water to major municipalities. All of them contribute to the control of Great Lakes Water Levels.

 Listing of Major Great Lakes Water Diversions

Welland Canal

Connects Lake Erie and Ontario. The canal allows ships to bypass Niagara Falls to continue through the Great Lakes.

The Chicago Diversion

This canal takes 2 billion gallons from the lake each day. This provides shipping capability and wastewater management into the Mississippi basin. 

Ogoki and Long Lake

Both of these diversions divert into Lake Superior. These diversions were formed to generate hydroelectric power for Canada’s defense industries during World War II. In addition, the Long Lake diversion has given the area the ability to transport cut timber for pulpwood production.

Forestport/ New York State Barge Canal

Starting as the famous Erie Canal. New York State Barge Canal is considered an intrabasin diversion. All water withdrawn from the Niagara River that is not consumed finds its way back through tributaries to Lake Ontario. This canal links Lake Erie near Buffalo to the Hudson River near Albany.

Ohio and Erie Canal

Constructed in the 1840s to connect the Ohio River (Mississippi basin) and Lake Erie. Ohio & Erie Canalway is a National Heritage Area designated by Congress in 1996

Portage Canal

This diversion is an interbasin connection, diverting the flow from the Wisconsin River, of the Mississippi system, into the Fox River, which empties into Lake Michigan.

Raisin River

This Canadian diversion was constructed in 1968 to divert water from the St. Lawrence River west of Cornwall to supplement low summer flows and improve the water quality in a tributary of the Raisin.

London Ontario

This city built pipelines to Lake Huron in 1967 and a system drawing from Lake Erie in 1995. 


The Detroit water system draws from Lake Huron, which is returned to the Detroit River. Thus, neither the Detroit nor London diversions have weighable effects on the levels of the lakes.

Pleasant Prairie

Located near Lake Michigan but just outside the Great Lakes basin, this Wisconsin community became the first applicant for a diversion to be considered by neighboring jurisdictions under the Great Lakes Charter of 1985.


The City of Hamilton, Ontario, draws its municipal water from Lake Ontario and three small communities on the Grand River in the neighboring Regional Municipality of Haldimand. The Grand River empties into Lake Erie.


The Ohio city received approval in 1998 to serve the water needs of unincorporated areas outside the Great Lakes basin in Ohio.

 Sources For Economic Impact of Great Lakes Water Levels

  • Frank Quinn & Jeff Edstrom (2000) Great Lakes Diversions and Other
  • Removals , Canadian Water Resources Journal, 25:2, 125-151, DOI: 10.4296/cwrj2502125
  •  2018 Study Economic Impacts of Maritime Shipping in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Region – United States Department of Transportation.

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